Fast Facts About Martian Volcanoes
Olympus Mons is the largest volcano in the Solar System
It is 15 miles (25 km high), 430 miles (700 km)
It is three times higher than Mount Everest (Earth’s tallest feature)
Its base would completely cover a state like Colorado or Arizona.
Olympus Mons is a shield volcano formed by repeated lava flows similar to the volcanic events that formed the Hawaiian Islands. There is no evidence of any explosive eruptions akin to that of Mount St. Helens in Washington state.
The volcano has fairly gentle slopes, and is surrounded by a cliff 6 miles (10 km or 33,000 feet) high. That's about the cruising altitude of passenger jets on Earth.
The volcano’s large size relative to volcanoes on Earth is due to the lack of plate tectonics (plate movement) on Mars. Thus the volcano remains stationary over its source of magma, and it grows until the magma source runs out.
  The large opening at the top of Olympus Mons, or any volcano for that matter, is called a caldera.
Olympus Mons’ caldera is 53 miles (85 km) wide.


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